Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural disaster in the history of the United States, causing an estimated $108 billion in damages. Also, Katrina killed at least 1,833 people and left thousands of people homeless. Portions of the devastated area were abandoned, and residents were forced to permanently relocate. The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley conducted an interesting study, entitled “Who Will Stay, Who Will Leave: Decision-Making of Residents Living in Potential Hurricane Impact Areas During a Hypothetical Hurricane Event in the Rio Grande Valley.” It is published in the Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. This study was selected because it attempts to understand Southern residents’ evacuation decision-making behavior in a hypothetical hurricane making landfall. This study’s specific population focuses on minorities, gender, age, educational level, and low-income status, which tend to be more vulnerable during disasters and unfavorably impact the evacuation decision-making process. The major responders to this incident were: The U.S. military, which provided security as well as tens of millions of dollars in relief supplies and assistance in the critical first weeks following the storm. FEMA, a federal agency that provided crucial command and control and oversaw the extensive, complex rescue and reconstruction efforts. DHS, other government organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Local and State Government response In the years since, a great deal of examination from the public and private sectors revealed major lessons learned, both positive and negative. Issues focused or related to the social vulnerability associated with minority status, gender, age, educational level, and low-income status individuals. Examining this major disaster provides an opportunity to understand how such an event can impact Homeland Security. Case Assignment For this Case Assignment: Elaborate on one of the following. Remember to provide examples: Explain New Orleans’ response to the hurricane. Discuss the first responder, military, and civilian actions to the hurricane victims. Discuss the impact on culture response failure fluxx lab website. Explain how understanding demographic characteristics such as minority status, gender, age, educational level, and low-income status can be applied to residences in the path of a hurricane to help them consciously make the best evacuation decision. Now having a behavioral understanding about why so many New Orleans residences made the conscious decision not to evacuate, how can we as homeland security practitioners better plan for this? Decisions in 2005 contributed to 1,833 deaths. Assignment Expectations Length: This Case Assignment should be 3-5 pages, not counting the title page and references. References: At least two references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings are included. Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is critical thinking). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be enclosed in quotes. The references should be cited within the text and listed at the end of the assignment in the References section (preferably in APA format). Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question. Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity. Required Reading Disaster response: Staff officer’s handbook, observations, insights, and lessons. (2007). Retrieved from Read Ch. 4: “Department of Defense Role in Incident Response.” House of Representatives Report 109-377 (2005). A failure of initiative: Final report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to investigate the preparation for and response to Hurricane Katrina report. Retrieved from  Read pages 1 – 5. Kiner, D. (2020, August 28). ‘Total disaster zone’: The 15th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. In PENNLIVE. Retrieved from Kyne, D., Lomeli, A. S., Donner, W., & Zuloaga, E. (2018). Who will stay, who will leave: Decision-making of residents living in potential hurricane impact areas during a hypothetical hurricane event in the Rio Grande valley. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 15(2). Available in the Trident Online Library. National Incident Management System (NIMS): The federal response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons learned (2006). The White House. Retrieved from USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Required Websites Department of Homeland Security: Disasters Disaster Information Management Research Center: Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Homeland Security News Wire:  National Incident Management System (NIMS): USCG Earthquake Hazards Program:

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