23. Which of the following works by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis? A amphotericin B both fluconazole and turbinafine с turbinafine O nystatin fluconazole 24. Which of the following is NOT an effective means of sterilization? A autoclaving dry heat Incineration ionizing radiation lyophilization 25. Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells? bacterial cells fungal cells both animal and fungal cells virus-infected cells animal cells 26. If the codon AAA is changed to AAG, it still codes for the amino acid lysine; this is an example of a gross mutation nonsense mutation. с silent mutation frameshift mutation missense mutation, E 27. Mutualism is a relationship where only one member derives benefit from the other. that sometimes provides benefits for both members such that one or both parties cannot live without the other. where one member of the relationship may kill the other. where it is hard to prove the benefits or disadvantages one member of the relationship may provide for the other. E where one member of the relationship benefits without hurting the other. 28. The bacterial chromosome is A usually circular. O both circular and found in a nucleus. E both circular and found in a nucleoid. B found in a nucleoid found in a nucleus. D 29. Which of the following is the most appropriate pairing of microbe and biosafety level? А tuberculosis, BSL-1 B anthrax, BSL-1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus D E.coli, BSL- (MRSA), BSL-2 Ebola, BSL-2 30. Infection of the would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs. brain B colon C) liver D kidneys heart А 31. Which of the following would be used to sterilize a mattress? A formaldehyde B radiation heavy metals D autoclaving ethylene oxide 32. Which of the following stages of an infectious disease is the most severe? the illness period B the incubation period © the prodromal period the decline period E the convalescence period 33. Standard methods of sterilization are not effective in inactivating fungi. bacterial cells. © prions viruses bacterial endospores. 34. Fomites are inanimate objects involved in the indirect fecal material from infected hosts. contact transmission of pathogens. © animal sources for human pathogens. silent carriers of infectious diseases. insects that transmit pathogens from an infected host to a noninfected host. 35. Another term for the Kirby-Bauer test is the B minimum inhibitory concentration test. minimum bactericidal concentration test. E test. D broth dilution test diffusion susceptibility test. 36. Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotic genomes but NOT eukaryotic genomes? linear chromosomes typically consist of a few to several chromosomes enclosed in a nuclear membrane circular chromosomes E histones B mo B 37. Aseptic means sanitized. с free of all pathogens. E free of all microbes. clean sterile. D 38. The fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci is found in the lungs of most people in low numbers, but in immunocompromised people it overgrows, resulting in severe respiratory problems. The fungus is best described as a parasite. B both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen. resident microbiota. a mutualist symbiotic partner. transient microbiota. E AP © PE 39. A charged tRNA first enters the ribosomal site and then moves into the site. EA D P, A AE 40. Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby acquires normal microbiota? A Microorganisms grow in the respiratory tract B Staphylococcus epidermidis is transferred from after the baby’s first breath the hospital staff to the newbom after delivery The baby acquires the residential microbiota O Microbes enter the nose and mouth when the in the colon after the first meal. baby is in the birth canal. E Microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy 41. Most broad-spectrum antibiotics act by inhibiting protein synthesis. inhibiting metabolic pathways. disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane. D inhibiting the synthesis of the cell wall. Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. 42. The cooperative activity of drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid, a ?-lactamase inhibitor, is known as cross resistance. antimetabolism © chemotherapy selective toxicity E synergism 43. Betadine is an example of which of the following groups of antimicrobial agents? alcohols B surfactants © heavy metals D halogens phenolics 44. Which of the following can result when antibiotic therapy disrupts the normal microbiota? pseudomembranous colitis B both pseudomembranous colitis and thrush thrush anaphylactic shock black hairy tongue

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