Essay Brief

Your assignment should be a 3,000 word essay in which you use the two pre-seen case studies to then explore the questions given.  You must use appropriate evidence to support your writing and ensure that you cover the learning outcomes of the module, which have also been highlighted specifically within each question.

  1. Analyse and apply the key concepts of anatomy and physiology across the life span as relevant to paramedic practice.
  • Explore and apply the key concepts related to the pathophysiology of disease and injury to the body systems, within the sphere of Paramedic practice
  • Analyse the key concepts of pharmacology in relation to Paramedic science

The essay should be:

  • 3,000 words (+/- 10%)
  • Arial, calibri or verdana font, size 11 or 12 and with a minimum of 1.5 line spacing
  • Use Harvard referencing.
  • You should write in third person, avoid I, we or the author.
  • Pictures and tables may be used but should be referenced to the source
  • Appendices may be used but not excessively.

The pass mark for this essay is 40%.

Case Study 1  

You are called to a residential address to a 21 year old male who’s family have called due to him vomiting and now is less responsive.


Generally Unwell / Vomiting / Reduced Level of Consciousness


His parents report that he has returned from university for the summer and since returning has been complaining of cold / flu like symptoms. Today he got up and they found him vomiting in the bathroom, then they heard a loud thud and found the patient collapsed on the bathroom floor in a pool of vomitus.








Patient in recovery position on the bathroom floor with large pool of vomit around his head, he has no shirt on and you notice a purpuric type rash all over his torso.


  1. Self maintained
  2. Rapid Shallow Breathing / Bilateral Equal Air Entry / Poor Tidal Volumes
  3. Weak Radial Pulse Present / Pale / Clammy
  4. Reduced LOC / PEARL / Agitated when response stimulated / Positive Koenigs & Brudzinski’s Signs
  5. Very Pale / No obvious injuries / Expanding purpuric rash to torso


BP 70/30

Pulse- 160

ECG – sinus tachycardia

RR- 33

SPO2 – 92%

Temp- 39.8 deg C


Blood Glucose- 5.8mmols

Case Study 1 Questions:

Part 1 (LO1) (+/-500words)-

Provide a clear explanation referring to relevant anatomy and physiological theory of the normal inflammatory response mechanisms within the body in relation to fighting off infection. (This should be with appropriate supporting references)

Part 2 (LO2) (+/-750words)-

With relation to the case study please explore the in depth disease process of Meningococcal Septicaemia. Within this you should discuss the full pathophysiology associated with the development of hypotension, purpuric rash and meningeal irritation. (This should be with appropriate supporting references)

Part 3 (LO3) (+/-750words)-

Describe the mechanism of action, including the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, of each of the pharmacological agents listed below which can be used to manage Meningitis and associated symptoms in the pre-hospital setting.

  • BenzylPenicillin 1.2g IV
  • Ondansetron 4mg IV
  • 250mls 0.9% NaCl (Sodium Chloride) IV

 (This should be with appropriate supporting references)

Case Study 2 Trauma

You have been dispatched to a patient who has been hit by a HGV


18 year old male lying on the floor with legs still under the back of the HGV. Police in attendance and the scene is safe.


On arrival the patient is showing some evidence of agitation though is answering questions when prompted








You have extricated your patient out from under the lorry; there is clear evidence of bruising over his lower abdomen with significant pain and clear asymmetry of the pelvis.

<C>- Clear evidence of a suspected pelvic injury

  1. Self Maintained
  2. Slight cyanosis of lips / Obvious Air Hunger / Bruising to the R side of the chest / Asymmetrical chest wall movements / Poor Tidal Volumes / Reduced air entry on R side
  3. Very Pale / Diaphoretic / Absent radial Pulses / Weak volume carotid pulse present
  4. V on AVPU / Clear evidence of agitation / PEARL
  5. Evidence of closed pelvic injury / R sided chest wall injury


BP- 60/20

Pulse – 119

Resps – 27

SPO2 – 90% on air


Blood Glucose- 6.7mmol

Case Study 2 Questions:

Part 1 (LO1) (+/- 500 words) –

With reference to the specific observations given in this case, describe the body’s physiological response to significant blood loss.

Part 2 (LO2) (+/- 500 words) –

Critique the evidence around the use of Needle Thoracocentesis in the management of tension pneumothorax. Give your rationale for its use in this patient, relating to your knowledge of ‘Gas Laws’. You should use only relevant and up to date journal-based evidence within your critique.  

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