Rocks and Minerals Study Questions

  1. What are the four major layers of the Earth?
  2. Which layer of the Earth is molten (liquid)?
  3. Magma and lava are both molten rock, so why do they have different names?
  4. There are three rock types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
    1. How do igneous rocks form?
    2. How do sedimentary rocks form?
    3. How do metamorphic rocks form?
  5. What black igneous rock is extremely common and sometimes cools to become tall, thin columns?
  6. Gabbro and basalt are closely related igneous rocks. Granite and ____________ are closely related igneous rocks. Hint: The lava that belongs in the blank is often pink.
  7. The four sedimentary rocks are:
    ________, ________, ________, ________
  8. The metamorphic rocks shown are:
    ________, ________, ________
  9. Minerals must meet four criteria. Those four are:
    ________, ________, ________, ________
  10. What is the hardest mineral?
  11. What mineral primarily makes up limestone and travertine? (FYI: Travertine is common around hot springs.)
  12. What are the three most common minerals in granite?
    ________, ________, ________
  13. Most beach sands are actually tiny pieces of the mineral _____________ .
  14. Sandstone is usually comprised of small grains of the mineral _____________ . Hint: See the previous question.
  15. Shales are primarily made of minerals called _______________ .

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