Discuss how changes in heart rate, preload, contractility, and afterload can alter cardiac function and cardiac output.

2. Identify indicators of left ventricular preload, contractility, and afterload.

3. Name the major components of a hemodynamic monitoring system.

4. Explain the proper technique for insertion and maintenance of a systemic arterial line, and list the most common complications that can occur with this type of monitoring system.

5. Describe the procedures for insertion and placement of a central venous line, and list the potential complications associated with these devices.

6. Interpret the waveforms generated during the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter.

7. Write calculations for arterial and venous oxygen content, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke index, cardiac cycle time, left ventricular stroke work index, right ventricular stroke work index, and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance.

8. List normal values for measured and derived hemodynamic variables.

9. Describe the most common complications associated with pulmonary artery catheterization and discuss strategies that can be used to minimize these complications.

10. Compare the effects of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation breathing on hemodynamic values.

11. Define the following terms: incisura, pulse pressure, stroke index, stroke work, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, ejection fraction.

12. Explain how measurements of pulmonary artery occlusion pressure can be used to evaluate left ventricular function.

13. Differentiate between cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema using hemodynamic parameters.

14. From a patient case, describe how hemodynamic monitoring can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of selected cases of critically ill patients.

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