Instructions

A Grant, J., S. Gorin & N. Fleming. 2008. ‘Chp. 9. People and Society in the Past.’ The Archaeology
Coursebook: An Introduction to Study Skills, Topics, and Methods. 3 rd Edn. London & New York:
Routledge. pp. 291-328.
B Renfrew, C. & P. Bahn. 2012. ‘Chp. 8. How were Societies Organised? Social Archaeology.’
Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. 6 th Edn. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 169-222.
Q1. What was the nature and scale of society in the pre-oil Arabian Gulf?
Think about how the types of society described in the general readings fit with traditional Gulf
society. Start with Peterson (1977) to see how traditional Gulf society and politics worked. What sort
of evidence would archaeologists find for the bedu and the hadr? What role would a fort like
Muwaij‘i play in society? What does the material culture of the bedu tell us about social
stratification?
(i) Peterson, J.E. 1977. Tribes and Politics in Eastern Arabia. Middle East Journal 31.3: 297-312.
(ii) Ferdinand, K. 1993. Bedouins of Qatar. Copenhagen: Carlsberg Corporation. [Don’t try to read all
of this. Focus on pages 98-114, 187-196, 341-357, 359-365.]
(ii) Power, T.C. & P.D. Sheehan. 2011. ‘The Qaṣr al-Muwaijʿī: Diwān of the Āl Nahayyān in the al-ʿAin
/ Buraimi Oasis.’ Liwa (Journal of the National Center for Documentation & Research, Abu Dhabi) 3.5:
26-41.
Q2. What evidence is there for the origin and early development of the Islamic state?
(i) Robinson, C.F. 2010. ‘The Rise of Islam, 600-705.’ In C.F. Robinson (ed.) The New Cambridge
History of Islam. Vol. 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. pp. 208-221. [Just read the sections on ‘Abd al-Malik’s reforms]
(ii) Johns, J. 2003. Archaeology and the History of Early Islam: The First Seventy Years of Islam.
Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 46.4: 411-436.
(iii) Hoyland, R.G. 2006. New Documentary Texts and the Early Islamic State. Bulletin of School for
Oriental and African Studies 69.3: 395-416.

Page 2 of 3

TRADE
General Readings
I would strongly recommend closely reading Renfrew & Bahn’s (2012) chapter on trade and
exchange. It has a lot more detail than Grant et al (2008) with much better case studies and maps.
Think carefully about the theories of how ancient trade and exchange worked, then discuss them
with reference to the case studies on the Gulf and Indian Ocean below.
A Grant, J., S. Gorin & N. Fleming. 2008. ‘Chp. 8. Material Culture and Economics: Trade and
Exchange.’ The Archaeology Coursebook: An Introduction to Study Skills, Topics, and Methods. 3 rd
Edn. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 266-275.
B Renfrew, C. & P. Bahn. 2012. ‘Chp. 9. What Contact Did They Have? Trade and Exchange.’
Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. 6 th Edn. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 347-380.
Q3. What was the significance of the Bronze Age trade in the Arabian Gulf?
(i) Potts, D.T. 2012. ‘Chp. 4. Magan.’ In the Land of the Emirates: The Archaeology and History of the
UAE. London: Trident Press & Abu Dhabi: Sultan bin Zayed’s Culture and Media Centre. pp. 44-69.
(ii) Rice, M. 1994. ‘Chp. 9. The Merchants of Dilmun.’ The Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf, c. 5000-
323 BC. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 264-299.
Q4. How did Greek and Roman objects find their way to sites in the UAE?
(i) Potts, D.T. 2012. ‘Chp. 7. ‘Abi‘el and the Polities of the Late Pre-Islamic Era.’ In the Land of the
Emirates: The Archaeology and History of the UAE. London: Trident Press & Abu Dhabi: Sultan bin
Zayed’s Culture and Media Centre. pp. 107-134.
(ii) Tomber, R. 2008. ‘Chp. 4. Beyond the Roman World.’ Indo-Roman Trade: From Pots to Pepper.
London. pp. 88-116.
(iii) Rutten, K. 2007. ‘The Roman Fine Wares of ed-Dur (Umm al-Qaiwain, U.A.E.) and their
distribution in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.’ Arabian Archaeology & Epigraphy 18: 8-24.

Page 3 of 3

RELIGION
General Readings
A Grant, J., S. Gorin & N. Fleming. 2008. ‘Chp. 6. Religion and Ritual.’ The Archaeology Coursebook:
An Introduction to Study Skills, Topics, and Methods. 3 rd Edn. London & New York: Routledge. pp.
133-151 & 178-196.
B Renfrew, C. & P. Bahn. 2012. ‘Chp. 10. What Did they Think? Cognitive Archaeology, Art and
Religion.’ Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. 6 th Edn. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 381-
420.
Q5. How can we understand religion and ritual in pre-Islamic Arabia?
(i) Hoyland, R.G. 2001. ‘Chp. 6. Religion.’ Arabia and the Arabs. From the Bronze Age to the Coming
of Islam. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 139-166.
(ii) Haerinck, 2012. ‘Chp. 15. The Temple at ed-Dur (Emirate of Umm al-Qaiwain) and Pre-Islamic Cult
in South-Eastern Arabia.’ In D.T. Potts & P. Hellyer (eds.) 50 Years of Emirates Archaeology:
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates.
Abu Dhabi & Dubai: Motivate Publishing. pp. 162-71.
(iii) Carter, R. 2008. ‘Christianity in the Gulf during the First Centuries of Islam.’ Arabian Archaeology
& Epigraphy 19: 71-108. [Don’t worry too much about the sections dealing in detail with the pottery]
Q6. Why did Abd al-Malik build the Dome of the Rock?
(i) Rabbat, N. 1989. ‘The Meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock.’ Muqarnas 6: 12-21.
(ii) Elad, A. 1992. ‘Why Did ʿAbd al-Malik Build the Dome of the Rock? A Re-Examination of the
Muslim Sources.’ In J. Raby & J. Johns (eds.) Bayt al-Maqdis. Vol. 1. ʿAbd al-Malik’s Jerusalem.
Oxford. pp. 33-58.
(iii) Van Ess, J. 1992. ‘ʿAbd al-Malik and the Dome of the Rock. An Analysis of Some Texts.’ In J. Raby
& J. Johns (eds.) Bayt al-Maqdis. Vol. 1. ʿAbd al-Malik’s Jerusalem. Oxford. pp. 89-103.

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