Instructions Compare the total cancer risk associated for a 16-year old and 50 year-old exposed to trichloroethylene through drinking water throughout their lives Exposure Residential Exposure Equations for Various Pathways CDI=ADD or LADD. Ingestion in drinking water CDI – (CWXIR.)(EFWED) where ABS-absorption factor for soil contaminant (unitless) (BW)(AT) AD – absorbed dose (mg kg-day] Ingestion while swimming AF = soil-to-skin adherence factor (mg/cm) CDI – (CW CRXET (EFED) AT -averaging time (days) (BWYAT) Dermal contact with water BW-body weight (kg) CA – contaminant concentration in air (mg/m) AD-(CWXSAXPCET EFXEDYCF) (BWAT) CDI – chronic daily intake (mg/kg-day Ingestion of chemicals in soil CF – volumetric conversion factor for water = 1 L1,000 cm CDI – (CSXRXCEXFDEFXED (BW)(AT) – conversion factor for soil – 10 kg/mg Dermal contact with soil CR – contact rate (L/hr) AD-(CSCFXSAXAF CABSHEEXED CS – chemical concentration in soil (mg/kg) (BW)(AT) CW – chemical concentration in water (mg/L) Inhalation of airbome (vapor phase) chemicals ED – exposure duration (years) CDI – (CAXIRET FEED EF exposure frequency (days/yr or events/year) (BWXAT) ET – exposure time (hr/day or hr/event) Ingestion of contaminated fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish F1 -raction ingested (unitless) CDI – (CFXIRYFIXEFXED] IR -ingestion rate (L/day or mg soliday or kg/meal) (BWXAT) – inhalation rate (m/hr) PC – chemical-specific dermal permeability constant ( ch) SA – skin surface are available for contact (cm) extrapolation from animals to humans use of less than chronic data use of LOAinstead of NOAEL human yang modifying factor 15.2 m’/day 8.3 m/day 6 g/day 50 mL/ 098 m’ht 147 m/h 0.46 om Average body weight, male adult Average body weight, child” 6-11 months 1-5 years 6-12 years Amount of water ingested, adult Amount of water ingested, child Amount of air breathed, female adult Amount of air breathed, male adult Amount of air breathed, child (3-5 years) Amount of fish consumed, adult Water swallowing rate, while swimming Inhalation rates adult (6-hr day) adult (2-hr day) child Skin surface available, adult male Skin surface available, adult female Skin surface available, child 3-6 years (average for male and female) 6-9 years (average for male and female) 9-12 years (average for male and female) 12-15 years (average for male and female) 15-18 years (female) 15-18 years (male) Soil ingestion rate, child 1-6 years Soil ingestion rate, persons > 6 years Skin adherence factor, gardener’s hands Skin adherence factor, wet soil Exposure duration Lifetime (carcinogens, for noncarcinogens use actual exposure duration) At one residence, 90th percentile National median Averaging time Exposure frequency (EF) Swimming Eating fish and shellfish 1.49 m 160 m 1.75m? >100 mg/day 50 mg/day 0.07 mg/cm 0.2 mg/cm 75 years 30 years 5 years (ED)(365 days/year) 7 days/year

  1. What strategies would you use to introduce the concept of Caring to your staff?
  2. What would you present as the advantages of considering a Caring Model.

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