How does LPS stimulation occur when done in vitro in monocyte differentiated macrophages? the mechanism of LPS signalling to release TNF alpha does it still involve Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP)? If so where does this come from because it’s been said to be produced by liver cells and endothelial cells. If it doesn’t involve LBP how does the signalling work? My theory was about Myd88 independent pathway whereby LPS directly binds to TLR4 receptor and trigger downstream signaling

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