Explain why ACE inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are prescribed to treat hypertension and heart failure.
2. A drug that amplifies the effect of bradykinin would have what effect? What diseases could it be prescribed to treat?
3. Would a patient taking an ARB have the same vasodilation effect via bradykinin as a patient taking an ACE inhibitor?
4. Spironolactone is a drug that blocks the aldosterone receptor in the renal collecting tubule. How would the sodium and potassium levels in the urine change after a patient is placed on spironolactone? Based on these changes, what are possible metabolic adverse effects of the drug?
5. Approximately 20% of hypertensive patients have abnormally high plasma renin activity. What drug class should these patients respond to?
6. Twenty percent (20%) of hypertensive patients have low renin plasma activity yet still respond to drugs that interfere with the RAAS pathway. What other components of the RAAS mechanism may the drug be working through to lower blood pressure?