What is a negative regulator? What is serving as a negative regulator in the RAAS pathway?

2. As ACE2 cleaves Ang II what happens to blood pressure and why?

3. If a patient has high levels of ACE2, what is expected to happen to their Ang II and Ang 1-7 levels?

4. ACE2 and Ang 1-7 are referred to as being “cardioprotective.” Why would this be?

5. ACE2 is cleaved by proteases and released as a soluble or plasma protein. Plasma ACE2 is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and is elevated in type 1 diabetics, hypertensive patients, and patients with kidney disease. Hypothesize why “tissue” (cell membrane bound) ACE2 is cardioprotective, but plasma ACE2 is associated with disease.

6. Using the diagram of the novel RAAS pathway (Figure 2), identify where new or experimental drugs can assist in decreasing hypertension within the novel RAAS pathway.

7. SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 inhibitor to enter cells. Would an increase of tissue ACE2 increase the likelihood of infection with SARS-CoV-2? Make a hypothesis and explain your reasoning.

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