How does NOAA and the USGS forecast for debris flows?

a. Model the expected rainfall intensity (e.g., precipitation rate) for upcoming storms

b. Compare this forecast with the rainfall intensity associated with debris flows in the past

c. Map areas where steep slopes and recent fires make for a probable hazard

d. Identify high-risk areas where populations coincide with hazardous areas

e. All of these

2) Which monitoring technique or information source will provide ample notice of a pending debris flow?

a. Watching areas upstream with motion-triggered cameras

b. Reading recently logged 911 calls

c. Monitor real-time changes in stream discharge via the USGS website

d. Monitoring ground motions using seismometers

e. National Weather Service “watch” alerts on the threat of debris flows and flash floods

f. Flash flood “warnings” released by the National Weather Service

3) What is the most serious issue with post-fire debris flow early warning systems?

a. The time period between the arrival of a storm and the initiation of a debris flow is typically only minutes

b. Local officials do not publicize the risk

c. NOAA is not able to produce warning products in a timely fashion

d. People choose to not evacuate in advance and then miss the short-notice tell-tale signs

e. NOAA cannot avoid false alarms

4) Those who choose to stay in their homes are most likely to survive a debris flow by taking the following action:

a. Seek higher ground on foot

b. Move their belongings to another area

c. Use a vehicle to seek higher ground

d. Move upstairs or to the roof of the home to avoid the flow

5) How could climate change contribute to an increased debris flow hazard?

a. Warmer ocean temperatures lead to more evaporation and higher intensity storms

b. Warmer air can hold more water vapor and bring higher rainfall intensities

c. Warming that causes droughts on land that can increase the fire hazard

d. All of these

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