Distinguish THREE (3) different aspects of group structure, namely, roles, norms, and cohesiveness. Using your own experience, give an example for each concept.


Susan is the Group General Manager of a retail department chain in Singapore. In the past year, the company reduced its branches from 8 to 6 and is planning to close down another 2. This was a result of the gloomy retail scene facing the brick-and mortar shops. Customers were more digitally-savvy and competition from online merchants was intense.Despite the need to cut costs, Susan believes brick-and-mortar stores will stay relevant and co-exist with online presence because the former offer experiences that online alternatives cannot match. For example, seeing and touching the real products. “You can’t convey that kind of experience on the online platform. Buying online carries the possibility of poor quality of goods and difficulty of returning them,” she insists. Soon after a town hall meeting, a project team is established to plan the change and support all branches during the transition. In cooperation with the branch managers, the project team has put together a programme that will help affected employees participate in relevant training. It is no longer just about standing in the store and selling products. There are additional duties such as addressing online queries and analysing customer data that need to be performed. As part of the consultation period, employees have been invited to meet with their supervisors to discuss their options. They are then matched with the company’s staffing requirements. Those who are not offered a job are invited to follow-up talks.

(i) Kurt Lewin has developed a three-stage model of planned change that explains how to initiate, manage, and stabilize the change process. Differentiate the THREE (3) stages of change. What should management do to facilitate change at each stage? At what stage is the retail department chain undergoing now?

(ii) Define Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). With reference to Kent Hodgson’s Seven General Morale Principles for Managers, propose THREE (3) ethical obligations Susan can adopt to assist the affected employees.

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