Identify where the structures that regulate breathing are located.
2. Explain how the inspiratory and expiratory neurons in the medulla establish the basic
the pattern of breathing.
3. Describe the effect that impulses from the pneumotaxic and apneustic centers in
the pons has on the medullary centers of breathing.
4. Describe the effect of various reflexes on breathing.
Stretch Receptor –
Head Paradoxical Reflex
5. Explain how the central and peripheral chemoreceptors differ in the way they regulate
6. Compare and contrast central chemoreceptors response to respiratory and nonrespiratory
7. Contrast the regulation of breathing in individuals with chronic hypercapnia with the
regulation of breathing in healthy individuals.
8. Explain why administering high concentrations of oxygen to patients with chronic
hypercapnia poses a special risk that is not present in healthy individuals.
9. Discuss the neural mechanism in regulating ones breathing.
10. Discuss the chemical mechanism in regulating ones breathing.
11. Describe why ascending to a high altitude has different immediate and long-term
effects on ventilation.
12. State and define various abnormal breathing patterns.