Identify where the structures that regulate breathing are located.

2. Explain how the inspiratory and expiratory neurons in the medulla establish the basic

the pattern of breathing.

3. Describe the effect that impulses from the pneumotaxic and apneustic centers in

the pons has on the medullary centers of breathing.

4. Describe the effect of various reflexes on breathing.

Stretch Receptor –

Juxtacapillary Receptor –

Head Paradoxical Reflex –

Irritant Receptors –

Proprioceptors –

Thermo receptors –

Cough Reflex –

Sneezing Reflex –

Pain Receptors –

Deglutition Reflex –

5. Explain how the central and peripheral chemoreceptors differ in the way they regulate


6. Compare and contrast central chemoreceptors response to respiratory and nonrespiratory

acid-base disorders.

7. Contrast the regulation of breathing in individuals with chronic hypercapnia with the

regulation of breathing in healthy individuals.

8. Explain why administering high concentrations of oxygen to patients with chronic

hypercapnia poses a special risk that is not present in healthy individuals.

9. Discuss the neural mechanism in regulating one’s breathing.

10. Discuss the chemical mechanism in regulating one’s breathing.

11. Describe why ascending to a high altitude has different immediate and long-term

effects on ventilation.

12. State and define various abnormal breathing patterns.

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