Part 2: Liberty
In the political philosophy book by Adam Swift, the concept of liberty has been used in many different ways with different traditions and theorists invoking different conception of it. This has resulted in the confusion that is not accepted by the famous essay of Berlin. According to Berlin’s essay, advocates of negative liberty believe that freedom is basically being free from interference, obstacles, and constraints while advocates of positive liberty hold that liberty depends on the act of being free in order to do things. In his essay, he also elaborates the distinction between ‘freedom from’ versus ‘freedom to’ but his stand on this is criticized the American philosopher, Gerald MacCallum.
Gerald MacCallum argues that Berlin is wrong when he thinks that there are two concepts of liberty and very wrong if he still thinks that there is any difference between ‘freedom from’ and ‘freedom to’. He supports this by stating that freedom has a triadic relation which involves three things, the agent, constraint and the goal and whatever claim about freedom someone has in mind, it will contain directly or indirectly the idea of an agent being from something to do. From the various illustrations, it is clear that the concepts of liberty are doubly confusing and most people tend to disagree in their views about the concept of liberty.

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