Evaluation Performance Appraisal System in a K-12 School
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TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC o “1-3” h z u 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc37827989 h 22.1 Theoretical Review PAGEREF _Toc37827990 h 22.1.1 Expectancy Theory PAGEREF _Toc37827991 h 22.2 Modern Performance Appraisal Methods PAGEREF _Toc37827992 h 32.2.1 Management by Objectives (MBO) PAGEREF _Toc37827993 h 42.2.2 The 360-Degree Feedback PAGEREF _Toc37827999 h 52.2.3 Assessment Centre Method PAGEREF _Toc37828002 h 52.2.4 Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) PAGEREF _Toc37828005 h 62.2.5 Psychological Appraisals PAGEREF _Toc37828007 h 72.2.6 Human-Resource (Cost) Accounting Method PAGEREF _Toc37828009 h 72.3 Performance Appraisal Models in Education Sector PAGEREF _Toc37828013 h 82.3.1 Accountability Performance Appraisal Model PAGEREF _Toc37828014 h 92.3.2 Professional Development Model PAGEREF _Toc37828015 h 112.3.3 A Combination of Accountability and Professional Development Model PAGEREF _Toc37828016 h 112.4 Performance Appraisal as a Means of Teacher Evaluation: A K-12 School Perspective PAGEREF _Toc37828017 h 122.5 Use of Teacher Evaluation Findings PAGEREF _Toc37828021 h 152.6 Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc37828022 h 15References PAGEREF _Toc37828023 h 18
Evaluation Performance Appraisal System in a K-12 School
It is essential to have performance appraisals in schools due to its effectiveness to both teachers and students. It gives teachers a plan for improvement and allows the schools to be able to evaluate teachers, which in turn gets reflected in students? performance. As a result, schools need careful planning when choosing the Performance Appraisal methods and the models used. Performance appraisal should add value to both the learning institutions and the teachers as they are ultimately useful in providing improved performance. This chapter presents the modern performance appraisal methods used to internalize teachers performance results as well as some of the models applied to give direction on strengths and weaknesses of set goals hence tailor them to suit the school?s objectives. Additionally, the chapter presents a theoretical review and other scholar?s views submitted in line with the research questions and goals of this study.ÿÿ
2.1 Theoretical Review
2.1.1 Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory is also referred to as expectancy valence theory. It got discovered in 1964 by Vroom. The principle behind this theory is that the expectations of individuals in their performance impact on their behavior and the expected reward (Otradskaya and Gogunskii, 2016). Its basis is on the notion that motivation comes due to the anticipated outcome and the attached extent of prize to the result. Vroom argues that the evaluation of organizational behavior is imperative. According to Vroom, individual?s motivation depends on their expectations with regards to probability that performance is brought about by effort, assumed or instrumentality link between rewards and performance and valence which makes the assumption of valued connected to the prize (Otradskaya and Gogunskii, 2016). Again, this theory posits that if a person acknowledges as real a particular value of goal and the manner they intend to accomplish it through activities; eventually, they will have the motivation to attain it.
The theory attests that inspiration of individuals towards conducting anything is due to goals put (Otradskaya and Gogunskii, 2016). Additionally, the approach urges administrators to comprehend the relationship between getting motivated, performing and pay. This inspiration depends on the anticipation that input will result in performance. Therefore, the theory is crucial in informing this research since it demonstrates performance appraisal factors such as connecting performance and rewards.
2.2 Modern Performance Appraisal Methods

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