Petrescu, A and Draghicescu, L. (2016). John Dewey’s contribution in the field of sociology of education. Journal of Education Sciences and Psychology, 5(8), 66-70.
The journal references the works of John Dewey to explore the American philosopher’s contribution to the sociology of education. The method used for the study is a hermeneutic interpretative study that basically explores the tenets of the philosopher’s expositions, ideas, and writings as it relates to education and society. Dewey, as averred by Petrescu and Draghicescu (2016) in the article, argued that education and therefore schooling is a continuation of community life. The school and all related agencies should therefore focus on in bequeathing to the child the inherited resources that are in the particular society (Garrison, Neubert, & Reich, 2012). The other salient point as deduced from Dewey’s writing by Petrescu and Draghicescu (2016) is the fact that education should be never a preparation for life but life in itself. Therefore, the school and education generally should be geared towards allowing the child to exercise the social norms as practiced in the family and the community.
Towards achieving a schooling and education set up that fosters a child’s integration into the community, Dewey suggests specific content, methodology, and evaluation process for learners. On content, education should be aimed at familiarizing the child with nature. On methods, Dewey favored an accurate representation of the objects the learners come into contact with, observation and stimulation, and valorization of emotions. On evaluation, the philosopher insisted on an emphasis on testing the child for competence for social life. Petrescu and Draghicescu (2016) term Dewey’s ideas as postmodern and progressivism as they represented the future of education in terms of socializing the child and improving the aptitude for social life. The view is largely agreeable as education is a continuation of family and community life.
Leshkovska, E and Spaseva, S. (2016). John Dewey’s education theory and educational implications of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering, 4(2), 57-67.
Leshkovska and Spaseva (2016) use a comparative and content analysis method to explore the differences and similarities between Howard Gardner’s education theory of multiple intelligences and John Dewey’s progressivism and their implications for schooling and education. The article starts by acknowledging the fact that the ideas from the two philosophers were powered by the imperative to change the methods used then in which all learners were treated as uniform in ability and intelligence (Dewey, 2004). Moreover, the ideas by the two philosophers were triggered by their dissatisfaction with the then popular method of verbal teaching that they deemed ineffective. Mainly, Leshkovska and Spaseva (2016) used three main domains to compare the models by Dewey and Gardner namely curriculum, teaching and learning methodologies, and the role of the teacher in the learning process. On curriculum, the two philosophers found intersection in their beliefs that the content should be not only based on real life but also integrated and thematic to enhance its relevance to the learner and the society (Gutek, 2009). On teaching and learning methods, the two agree that education should be student-centered and geared towards allowing students to express their diverse identities and abilities. Moreover, the teaching should be participatory to make it stimulating and engaging. On the teachers’ role, the two thinkers shared the view that the role of the teacher should be predominantly to connect the learners’’ experiences with the content of the curriculum. The two shared abhorrence for verbal or lecture method that made teachers a conveyor belt and learners a repository to be deposited with knowledge. The two philosophers were visionary and progressive as their thoughts and ideas continue to shape the curriculum and teaching and classroom ideologies.
Talebi, Kandan. (2015). John Dewey-Philosopher and educational reformer. European Journal of Education Studies, 1(1), 1-13.
In this article, Talebi (2015) delves into the life, works, and ideas of John Dewey thus helping to understand the man and the surrounding that shaped his philosophy. The article lauds Dewey as the “founder of pragmatism, a pioneer in functional psychology, and leader of progressive movement” (Talebi, 2015, p. 1). Importantly, the article succeeds in linking Dewey’s ideals about democracy with the objectives of education. As the article notes, Dewey was a champion of democracy who believed in the place of the school and the civil society as the foundational elements of creating a society in which multiplicity of ideas and intelligence was not only cherished but also allowed to flourish. Talebi (2015) traces Dewey’s belief in rational empiricism, which would later shape his ideas as an educationist, to the University of Chicago where he authored his first essays on various philosophical issues.
Talebi (2015) notes several salient ideas that run through Dewey’s work as relates to school and education. First is the view that the school is a social institution where interactive processes take place to achieve social reform. Students should therefore be allowed to interact with the environment and be active participants in their own learning. Second is the view that schools are places where children learn how to live rather than merely acquire knowledge. Third is the premise that learners are not blank slates to be filled with knowledge. Rather, learners come to school with their own experiences which should be integrated and connected to the curriculum content. Dewey also makes a case for participatory and collaborative learning where the teacher plays a reduced role and evaluation is based on assessing the aptitude of the learner in acquiring life skills (Mooney & Nowacki, 2013). Again, writing in the early 1990s, Dewey ideas are radically progressive today as they were then in that they envisioned a learning environment in which life happens rather than being prepared for and learners’ experiences and differences count in the learning and teaching process.
Bansal, Suraksha. (2015). Perennialism-A concept of educational philosophy. International Journal of Education and Science Research, 2(6), 87-94.
Perennialism refers to the collection of philosophies emanating from thinkers like Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and Jacques Maritaim. As used by Bansal (2015), perennialism also refers to the realism and scholasticism theories associated mainly with Thomas of Aquinas. Mainly, the article traces the origin of the philosophy from Aristotle through Thomas Aquinas to contemporary adherents of the tenets of the educational ideology. In essence, the philosophy is a conservative and rigid approach to education (Mayer, Thomas & Fitzpatrick, 2007). The methods advocated by the philosophy are structure and drilled. Importantly, the philosophy does not emphasize the place of learners’ experience or the collaborative learning that was later favored by thinkers such as John Dewey. On content, realism places more focus on the traditional disciplines of Arithmetic, literacy, and writing. Important subjects such as art and music are not given as much attention. Realism philosophy also focuses on universal knowledge as the basis of the curriculum. The result is that the learners’ primary context is ignored. Similarly, the philosophy treats education as the preparation of life rather than life itself. This is in sharp contrast to the progressivism advocated by John Dewey in which schooling and education are treated as life rather than the preparation for it.
According to Bansal (2015), Thomas Aquinas major contribution to the realism philosophy was the addition of the concept of existence. Thomas infused his religious orientation into the philosophy, arguing that beyond the form and matter championed by Aristotle, there was an important element of existence of essence. He termed the essence of existence as God and argued that life should be a preparation of the afterlife, cementing the underpinning educational philosophy that learning and teaching should focus on universal knowledge and preparation for life. This, as indicated before, contrasts with Dewey’s view that education is life rather than a preparation for it.
Pennance-Acevedo, G. (2017). St. Thomas Aquinas and John Locke on natural law. Studia Gilsoniana, 6(2), 221-248.
Pennance-Acevedo (2017) article discusses the commonly held view that the theory of natural law advanced by John Locke is a continuation of what was started by Thomas Aquinas as relates to the tenet that human rights and laws are universal and binding to all. The article finds several similarities and differences that have implication on the realism philosophy of teaching and learning. To start with, Pennance-Acevedo (2017) finds similarity in the fact that both John Locke and Thomas Aquinas agree that all human knowledge is derived from their experience. However, the two differ on exactly how this experience is constructed. Locke derives from empiricist epistemology to postulate that knowledge is constructed from external sensations and internal operations from which complex ideas that make up knowledge are constructed (Boland & Bailey, 2014). On the other hand, Aquinas derives from the realistic epistemology to argue that “concepts are not what…